• Also known as German measles or 3-d measles
  • Transmission via droplets from respiratory secretions
  • Moderately contagious:
    • During rash eruption and contact with infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)
    • Infants with congenital rubella shed large quantities of virus for months up to 1 yr
  • Infectious period: 7 d before to 5 d after appearance of rash
  • Incubation period: 14–21 d (usually 16–18 d)
  • Up to 50% may be inapparent or subclinical


  • Rubella virus (family: Togaviridae, genus: Rubivirus)
  • Humans are only known reservoir

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