Neonatal Sepsis is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Emergency Central is a collection of disease, drug, and test information including 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult, Davis’s Drug, McGraw-Hill Medical’s Diagnosaurus®, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals created for emergency medicine professionals. Explore these free sample topics:

Emergency Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Basics

Description

Mechanism
  • Life-threatening infection of the newborn, rarely occurring as late as 3 mo of age
  • Overwhelmingly bacterial:
    • Rarely viral or fungal infection
    • Organisms usually present in the maternal perineal flora
  • Occurs in 3–5 newborns per 1,000 live births
  • Risk factors:
    • Perinatal:
      • History of recent fever (>37.5°C)
      • UTI
      • Chorioamnionitis
      • Prolonged rupture of membranes (>18 hr)
      • Foul lochia
      • Uterine tenderness
      • Intrapartum asphyxia
    • Neonatal:
      • Prematurity
      • Fetal tachycardia (>180 beats/min)
      • Male
      • Twinning (especially 2nd twin)
      • Developmental or congenital immune defects
      • Administration of IM iron
      • Galactosemia
      • Congenital anomaly (urinary tract, asplenia, myelomeningocele, sinus tract)
      • Omphalitis

Etiology

Sepsis
  • Bacterial:
    • Group B Streptococcus
    • Escherichia coli
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus
    • Treponema pallidum
  • Viral:
    • Herpes simplex is a common viral etiology.
    • Enterovirus
    • Adenovirus
  • Fungi:
    • Candida species
  • Protozoa:
    • Malaria
    • Borrelia

Meningitis
  • Bacterial:
    • Group B Streptococcus
    • E. coli type K1
    • L. monocytogenes
    • Other streptococci
    • Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae
    • Coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus
    • Less commonly: Klebsiella, Enterobacter
    • Pseudomonas, T. pallidum, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Citrobacter diversus (important cause of brain abscess)
    • Additional pathogens: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum
  • Viral:
    • Enteroviruses
    • Herpes simplex virus (type 2 more commonly)
    • Cytomegaloviruses
    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • Rubella
    • HIV
  • Fungi:
    • Candida albicans and other fungi

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Neonatal Sepsis ID - 307042 Y1 - 2016 PB - 5-Minute Emergency Consult UR - https://emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307042/all/Neonatal_Sepsis ER -