Emergency Central is a collection of disease, drug, and test information including 5-Minute Emergency Medicine Consult, Davis’s Drug, McGraw-Hill Medical’s Diagnosaurus®, Pocket Guide to Diagnostic Tests, and MEDLINE Journals created for emergency medicine professionals. Explore these free sample topics:
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- Acute respiratory tract infection spread by small respiratory droplets
- Bacteria (fimbriae) attach to respiratory epithelial cells and proliferate, producing toxins:
- Ciliary dysfunction, accumulation of cellular debris, increased mucus production, lymphocytic and granulocytic infiltration
- Bronchiolar congestion, obstruction, and necrosis
- Obstruction of the airway due to mucus plug, leading to hypoxia and hypoventilation
- Increased intrathoracic or intracranial pressure
- Secondary bacterial infection may exacerbate respiratory distress/failure.
- CNS injury caused by encephalitis, increased intracranial pressure, and/or hypoxia
- Uncomplicated cases last 6–10 wk; half of the cases last <6 wk.
- Mortality greatest in those <1 yr
- 1.3% for patients <1 mo
- 0.3% in children 2–11 mo
- 90% of deaths are secondary to bacterial pneumonia
- Incubation period is 6–20 days, usually 7–10 days.
- Mostly young children; 24% in children <6 mo
- Increasing incidence in adolescents
- Adults are the primary reservoir
- Peak incidence is late summer/fall
- Preventable with diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (Tdap) vaccine
- A fastidious, gram-negative, pleomorphic bacillus