- Ventricular peritoneal (VP) shunts are usually placed for hydrocephalus.
- Conduit between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peritoneal cavity
- Obstruction: Shunt malfunction impairs drainage of CSF:
- Increases intracranial pressure (ICP)
- Rate of increase in ICP determines severity.
- Overdrainage syndrome:
- Upright posture increases CSF outflow
- Decreases ICP
- Produces headache, as after lumbar puncture
- Shunt is a foreign body.
- Staphylococcus epidermidis and other Staph. species in 75% of infections
- Gram-negative organisms also implicated
- Multidrug-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) has been reported.
- Most occur within weeks of placement
- Slit ventricle syndrome:
- Prolonged overdrainage causes decreased ventricular size.
- Intermittent increases in ICP occur owing to proximal obstruction.
- Complications more common in children, especially neonates
- If cranial sutures are open, CSF may accumulate without much ICP increase.
- Produces relatively nonspecific signs and symptoms
- Drowsiness, headache, and vomiting are the commonest symptoms
Ventricular Peritoneal Shunts has been found in 5-Minute Emergency Consult
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