Bite, Animal was found in 5-Minute Emergency Consult within Emergency Central. Look up diagnosis tables, treatment guidelines, and drug and disease information.

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Basics

Description

  • Most bites are from provoked animals.
  • Dog bite wounds:
    • Large dogs inflict the most serious wounds (pit bulls cause the most human fatalities).
    • Most fatalities in children (70%) due to bites to face/neck
    • Dogs of family or friends account for most bites.
  • Cat bite wounds:
    • Majority from pets known to victim
    • 50% infection rate in those seeking care
    • Puncture wounds most frequent due to sharp thin teeth causing deep inoculation of bacteria
  • Catscratch disease (CSD):
    • 3 of the following 4 criteria:
      • Cat contact, with presence of scratch or inoculation lesion of the skin, eye, or mucous membrane
      • Positive CSD skin test result
      • Characteristic lymph node histopathology
      • Negative results of lab studies for other causes of lymphadenopathy
  • Rat bite wounds:
    • Occur in lab personnel or children of low socioeconomic class
    • Rat-bite fever (RBF), rare in US but high mortality rate
    • Rat bites rarely transmit rabies, and prophylaxis not routine

Etiology

  • Dog and cat bites:
    • Pasteurella multocida is the major organism in both:
      • Twice as likely to be found in cat bites than dog bites
      • Gram-negative aerobe found in up to 80% of cat infections
      • Infection appears in <24 hr
    • Staphylococcus or Streptococcus:
      • Infection appears in >24 hr
    • Other organisms include anaerobes and Capnocytophaga canimorsus (dogs).
  • Catscratch disease:
    • Caused by Bartonella henselae
  • Rat bites:
    • Caused by Spirillum minus and Streptobacillus moniliformis (RBF)

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